Simple Ways to Learn Context Clues
You know that decoding word sounds is one of the major obstacles to reading fluency. You may have also heard that there is another major obstacle...
...decoding word meanings.
Vocabulary is a killer in reading comprehension. It is also one of the largest factors in creating strong readers.
However, it is not enough to teach words. We have to make it simple to master!
Right now, you will discover these effective context clues strategies:
- Questions that Scaffold Understanding of Context Clues
- Use Short, Above-Level Texts
- Practice Across Genres
- Read ample Informational Texts when learning context clues
- Use Task Cards to Scaffold Cognitive Resources
Teach Context Clues with Simple Clarity
Make it simpler. Get detailed with teaching context clues. You know you have to be clear as to why, what, and how.
Let's take a closer look...
Why teach context clues?
Word meanings can be constructed from the clues before, within, and after the sentence with the unknown word. There are also clues within the word.
The context surrounding an unknown word can help a student understand its structure, how it's used, and ultimately its meaning. Struggling readers need us to explicitly teach these concepts. With clear instruction, they can draw upon multiple approaches to determine word meanings.
How to teach context clues?
Sound, evidence-based approaches such as direct instruction, choice in reading materials, and varied interaction (including technology) with new words will help students learn to use context clues.
Resources that Scaffold Context Clues
It's not enough to have good teaching. Students need quality practice with resources that amount to more than a worksheet.
Students also need practice with more support than just a book.
Read more about the effects of too little and too much Scaffolding.
Make Context Clues Simple with Scaffolding
Use Questions that Scaffold Student Practice
The best scaffolding helps readers by asking text-dependent questions:
- Identifying synonyms in the context
- Identifying contrast in the context
- Understanding descriptions in the context
- Using grammar (i.e. this word is a verb, adjective, or a noun)
- Looking for examples in the context
- Break apart within-word context (i.e. base words, roots, affixes)
Above Level Texts
Use Short, But Challenging Texts
Task cards are written at a higher reading level than students' independent ranges:
For 1st-2nd grade, students should be practicing with segmented texts at reading levels 3-5.
A shared reading is the ideal instructional format because the teacher shares the decoding responsibility with the students, but they carry the responsibility of comprehension.
In grades 3-6, students should also be reading task cards written at levels 5-8.
The texts bring the challenge, yet the segmenting and targeted questioning provide the scaffolding.
Informational Texts are Challenging
They provide plenty of complex contexts when they reach across different curriculum areas.
Students receive the additional benefit of building content area background knowledge.
Practice Across Genres
Provide a Variety of Practice Across Genres
Make practice meaningful by applying context clues strategies in poetry, fiction, and interpreting figurative language.
Poetry is perfect for practice because of the concise nature of the context clues.
Figurative language (similes, metaphors, idioms) provide an additional challenge because of the amount of interpreting needed.
Task Cards Scaffold Cognitive Resources
If you continue to use segmented texts in resources like task cards, students will be able to focus on context.
Less cognitive load is dedicated to maintaining meaning across a longer text.
Working memory is devoted to the skill of using context clues.